Tier 4 Explanation

Tier 4 Standards. On May 11, 2004, the EPA signed the final rule introducing Tier 4 emission standards, which are to be phased-in over the period of 2008-2015 [69 FR 38957-39273, 29 Jun 2004]. The Tier 4 standards require that emissions of PM and NOx be further reduced by about 90%. Such emission reductions can be achieved through the use of control technologies—including advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment—similar to those required by the 2007-2010 standards for highway engines.

Nonroad Diesel Fuel. At the Tier 1-3 stage, the sulfur content in nonroad diesel fuels was not limited by environmental regulations. The oil industry specification was 0.5% (wt., max), with the average in-use sulfur level of about 0.3% = 3,000 ppm. To enable sulfur-sensitive control technologies in Tier 4 engines—such as catalytic particulate filters and NOx adsorbers—the EPA mandated reductions in sulfur content in nonroad diesel fuels, as follows:

  • 500 ppm effective June 2007 for nonroad, locomotive and marine (NRLM) diesel fuels
  • 15 ppm (ultra-low sulfur diesel) effective June 2010 for nonroad fuel, and June 2012 for locomotive and marine fuels

California. In most cases, federal nonroad regulations also apply in California, whose authority to set emission standards for new nonroad engines is limited. The federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA) preempt California’s authority to control emissions from new farm and construction equipment under 175 hp [CAA Section 209(e)(1)(A)] and require California to receive authorization from the federal EPA for controls over other off-road sources [CAA Section 209 (e)(2)(A)].

The US nonroad emission standards are harmonized to a certain degree with European nonroad emission standards.

EPA emission standards for nonroad diesel engines are published in the US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 89 [40 CFR Part 89].

Applicability

The nonroad standards cover mobile nonroad diesel engines of all sizes used in a wide range of construction, agricultural and industrial equipment. The EPA definition of the nonroad engine is based on the principle of mobility/portability, and includes engines installed on (1) self-propelled equipment, (2) on equipment that is propelled while performing its function, or (3) on equipment that is portable or transportable, as indicated by the presence of wheels, skids, carrying handles, dolly, trailer, or platform [40 CFR 1068.30]. In other words, nonroad engines are all internal combustion engines except motor vehicle (highway) engines, stationary engines (or engines that remain at one location for more than 12 months), engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft.

Effective May 14, 2003, the definition of nonroad engines was changed to also include all diesel powered engines—including stationary ones—used in agricultural operations in California. This change applies only to engines sold in the state of California; stationary engines sold in other states are not classified as nonroad engines.

The nonroad diesel emission regulations are not applicable to all nonroad diesel engines. Exempted are the following nonroad engine categories:

  • Engines used in railway locomotives; those are subject to separate EPA regulations.
  • Engines used in marine vessels, also covered by separate EPA regulations. Marine engines below 37 kW (50 hp) are subject to Tier 1-2—but not Tier 4—nonroad standards. Certain marine engines that are exempted from marine standards may be subject to nonroad regulations.
  • Engines used in underground mining equipment. Diesel emissions and air quality in mines are regulated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).
  • Hobby engines (below 50 cm3 per cylinder)

Examples of regulated applications include farm tractors, excavators, bulldozers, wheel loaders, backhoe loaders, road graders, diesel lawn tractors, logging equipment, portable generators, skid steer loaders, or forklifts.

A new definition of a compression-ignition (diesel) engine is used in the regulatory language since the 1998 rule, that is consistent with definitions established for highway engines. The definition focuses on the engine cycle, rather than the ignition mechanism, with the presence of a throttle as an indicator to distinguish between diesel-cycle and otto-cycle operation. Regulating power by controlling the fuel supply in lieu of a throttle corresponds with lean combustion and diesel-cycle operation. This language allows the possibility that a natural gas-fueled engine equipped with a sparkplug is considered a compression-ignition engine.

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